As Alain de Benoist has noted, there are two main schools of thought on the Indo-European urheimat (homeland): one which derives the Indo-Europeans from the North, and another which brings them from South Russia (and ultimately the Near East).
Suprà:Zones of Indo-European origin proposed by scholars over the 19–20th centuries, showing a trend toward the northwest over time.
At the beginning of the 20th century the origin of the Indo-Europeans was located in the Saxony-Denmark-Scania region by Gustaf Retzius (anatomist), Karl Penka (ethnologist), and Ludwig Wilser (philologist). This Nordic Theory, defended by the archæologist Gustav Kossinna, was the prevailing school of thought on Indo-European origins until it after WWII. It was supplanted, at least in the English-speaking world, by the Kurgan (South Russian) Theory and the Anatolian Theory, both of which bring the Indo-European languages into Europe via invasions from the east.
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