Bronze Age — Past Hull & Around


2500 to 800 BC Over time, the great sweeping forests of England were gradually cleared and new open spaces encompassed thriving communities with areas for growing crops such as straw, wheat and barley. Cattle, sheep and goats meandered amongst them and grazed on grassland nearby. Settlers came from mainland Europe bringing new skills and ideas. […]

über Bronze Age — Past Hull & Around

Das Trojanische Pferd

Many have probably heard about the Trojan horse, one of the first tricks ever used in war. The Greeks who attack Troy pretend to leave with their thousand ships, but hide instead behind an island. They leave a giant wooden horse on the beach – the Trojan horse. The inhabitants of Troy believe it’s a […]

über The most embarrassing mistake in history: What if the Trojan horse was a ship? — Ilion:boken

Das Licht des Orion

Friday, 15 December 2017

Bowls from Los Millares

Los Millares is a Chalcolithic occupation site 17 km north of Almería, in the municipality of Santa Fe de Mondújar, Andalucía, Spain. The complex was in use from the end of the fourth millennium to the end of the second millennium BC and probably supported somewhere around 1000 people.

The site covers 2 hectares (4.9 acres) and comprises three concentric lines of stone walls, the outer ring the largest, running more than 650 feet with nineteen ‚bastions‘ and a gate guarded by foreworks. A cluster of simple dwellings lay inside the wall. The road to the site is guarded by four smaller outlying stone forts. There is an extensive cemetery of eighty passage grave tombs. The site was occupied between around 3200 BC and 1800 BC, when the Los Millares culture was replaced by El Argar civilisation.

Although primarily farmers, the inhabitants of Los Millares had crucially also learned metal working, especially the smelting and forming of copper. A large building containing evidence of copper smelting. Because of this, the site is considered highly important in understanding the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. The Los Millares culture eventually came to dominate the Iberian peninsula.

Pottery excavated from the site included plain and decorated wares including engraved bowls bearing oculus (a round or eye-like opening or design) motifs. Similar designs appear on various carved stone idols found at the site.

This is these ceramic bowls decorated with the „ocular“ motif. It was dated to the period 3200–2300 BC. The bowl is currently displayed in Ashmolean museum.

Here is another example from the Museum of Almeria.

So what about the meaning of this „occular“ decoration. The Ashmolean has this to say about it: „The meaning of the eye motif is unknown, but it must have had significance for Los Millares people. Some researchers believe that it may be related to the sun. Another interpretation is that it may represent an owl…

That this motif indeed represents eyes can be seen from the fact that it is framed with what looks very much like eyebrows. Also the same motif is found on idols exactly where eyes are supposed to be.

Alpenkäse als Tauschmittel

Spuren zeigen, dass in den Alpregionen bereits 1000 Jahre vor Christus Milch verarbeitet worden ist. Milch dient allen neugeborenen «Säugern» als erstes hochwertiges Nahrungsmittel, das in unterschiedlichen Anteilen Eiweisse, Fettsäuren, Kohlenhydrate, Mineralien und Vitamine enthält. Aufgrund dieser besonderen Vorzüge macht sich der Mensch die Milch fast aller seiner domestizierten Haustiere zunutze. Gerade in den Alpentälern […]

über Käsen auf Alpen hat lange Tradition — Rückwege Blog